NetLogo User Community Models
by Lau Wee Kiat (Submitted: 11/12/2012)
## WHAT IS IT?
There are many studies looking at the impact of how role models affect the society or the individual. Role models are indeed important and influential in a community or a small group. Role models can decrease negative influences perceived by individuals (Ferguson, 2012), improve learning styles of students (Shein & Chiou, 2011), shape the behaviors of children (Sirikulchayanonta, edsee, Shuaytong, & Srisorrachatr, 2011), and even increase the satisfaction for adult workers (Healy et al., n. d.).
However, role-models may also cause negative influences to the society. When the values of the role-models are incongruent with the values of the population, there is a decrease in motivation level (Lockwood, Jordan, & Kunda, 2002). Role-models with negative influences, such as actors in Hollywood movies, increase the rate negative activity (i.e. smoking) practiced by the population (Escamillia, Cradock, & Kawachi, 2000).
Every individual has their own role-models. One type of role-model that is impactful to the society is fashion models portrayed by the media. Women who compare their figures with the figure of the fashion models normally have poorer self-esteem (Brenner & Cunningham, 1992). Similarly, if the individual’s self-perception of their own figure is poorer than the perception of fashion model’s figure, the individual will have a lower self-esteem (Prosavac & Prosavac, 2002). Thus, fashion models portrayed by the media can affect the self-esteem and the perception of the individual’s own body (Grabe, Ward, & Hyde, 2008).
The purpose of this agent-based model is to create a simple model to investigate what would occur if the fashion model loses influence, and how this process where the model loses influence affect others in terms of their self-esteem. In the model, activity refers to an arbitrary term. The distance from the individual to another individual or the fashion model used in this model is the social distance. Social Distance is the distance between people within a given location (Latané, Nowak, Bonavento, & Zheng, 1995).
## HOW IT WORKS
**An agent either has an activity, or not. Activity is an arbitrary term.** E.g. Activity can be 'dieting'.
* **Surrounding Influence**
* **Fashion Model introduced**
* **When Role-model loses power / effect**
let x one-of turtles with [immuned? = true] ;; Fashion-models immuned when dead
* **Agents decide whether to continue activity**
* **Determine Self-esteem**
## HOW TO USE IT
1.Press **Setup** to create the agents.
* Influential-radius: How far can the role-model influence
2.Press **Go** to begin simulation.
3.Click on **Pick random Fashion model** to introduce a new fashion model into the simulation.
## THINGS TO NOTICE
This model was designed for only 1 fashion model to be introduced into the simulation. Thus, adding more fashion models will not make the computation accurate.
## THINGS TO TRY
Do you think whether the radius of influence will affect the activity of the agents after the Role-model is gone?
What happens if the size of the world is smaller / larger? Is there a difference in the results?
What if the fashion-model-influence is smaller / larger? How do you think this will affect the agents?
What do you notice about the self-esteem and activity (green agents) if the influence is very large?
## EXTENDING THE MODEL
* Adapt the model to different situations aside from looking at role-models
* Give more variables to the agents, such as resistance to Role-model influence, the strength of an agent's own influence etc (_see related models_).
## RELATED MODELS
This model uses an equation which is the Social Distance Model proposed by Nowak et al, (1990); The Community Model which adapts the similar equation is done by Nigel Gilbert
## CREDITS AND REFERENCES
Brenner, J. B., & Cunningham, J. G. (1992). Gender differences in eating attitudes, body concept, and self-esteem among models. Sex Roles, 27(7), 413-437.
Escamilla, G., Cradock, A. L., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Women and smoking in Hollywood movies: a content analysis. American Journal of Public Health,90(3), 412.
Ferguson, C. J. (2012). Positive Female Role-Models Eliminate Negative Effects of Sexually Violent Media. Journal Of Communication, 62(5), 888-899. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01666.x
Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological bulletin, 134(3), 460.
Healy, N., Cantillon, P., Malone, C., & Kerin, M. (n.d). Role models and mentors in surgery. American Journal Of Surgery, 204(2), 256-261.
Lockwood, P., Jordan, C. H., & Kunda, Z. (2002). Motivation by positive or negative role models: regulatory focus determines who will best inspire us. Journal of personality and social psychology, 83(4), 854.
Nowak, A., Szamrej, J., & Latané, B. (1990). From private attitude to public opinion: A dynamic theory of social impact. Psychological Review, 97, 362 – 376
Posavac, S. S., & Posavac, H. D. (2002). Predictors of women's concern with body weight: the roles of perceived self-media ideal discrepancies and self-esteem. Eating Disorders, 10(2), 153-160.
SHEIN, P., & CHIOU, W. (2011). TEACHERS AS ROLE MODELS FOR STUDENTS' LEARNING STYLES. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 39(8), 1097-1104.
Sirikulchayanonta, C., edsee, K., Shuaytong, P., & Srisorrachatr, S. (2010). Using food experience, multimedia and role models for promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in Bangkok kindergarten children. Nutrition & Dietetics, 67(2), 97-101.
(back to the NetLogo User Community Models)