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## NetLogo Models Library: |

If you download the NetLogo application, this model is included. (You can also run this model in your browser, but we don't recommend it; details here.) |

This HubNet model is the second model of the MTG series. Mind the Gap (MTG) is a curricular unit revolving around a series of three agent-based participatory simulations (ABPSs). The goal of the MTG curricular unit is to help high school students understand important mechanisms of wealth inequality in the U.S. through the lens of complex systems with NetLogo HubNet-based participatory activities. For more details about the unit, refer to Mind the Gap 1 Equal Opportunities HubNet Model--the first model of the MTG series.

The goal of this model is to let students experience the power of an uncontrollable force that contributes to wealth inequality. In this model, sugar is unevenly distributed across the checkerboard. Students are randomly placed on the board and are also randomly assigned different visions, metabolisms, and endowments. Therefore, the initial conditions that a student starts with, to a large extent, determine the student’s course of life in this simulation. Students come to realize that when faced with the force of randomness (luck), instead of personal abilities, luck usually shapes the course of life.

The "land" in this model is represented by a 50 by 50 world. Each patch contains a predetermined amount of sugar (2 units of sugar). The color of the patch shows the amount of sugar it contains: the darker the yellow, the more sugar it has. Each person (or agent) has a few attributes:

Vision: how many patches (steps) away an agent can see; a randomly assigned number between 1 and 6. Note that vision is not circular, but along a cross in the cardinal directions.

Endowment: how many units of sugar an agent starts with; a randomly assigned amount of sugar between 5 and 25.

Metabolism: how many units of sugar is needed for moving one step or doing one harvest; a randomly assigned amount of sugar between 1 and 3.

Students have some actions they can take:

Move: by clicking the direction buttons or the keyboard shortcuts on the HubNet client, students can move around. Each click moves the student by one step and burns METABOLISM amount of sugar.

Harvest: by clicking the harvest button, students harvest all the sugar on the tile that he or she is standing on. One harvest burns METABOLISM amount of sugar.

Before starting the model, the teacher can pose a question such as "Why are rich people rich while poor people poor in this model?". After briefly showing students the interface elements on both the students' and the teacher's interface, the teacher can start the model.

Teacher's interface elements:

SETUP: prepares the model for run. make sure to click it after every student has joined.

GO: start the model, so students can participate in the simulation.

SUGAR-MEAN: the average of all students' current sugar.

SHOW-WORLD: shows the underlying sugar distribution and the locations of each agent. By default, the world is hidden, because students are not supposed to know about the resource distribution. SHOW-WORLD can be used after students played the simulation. During the discussion phase, the teacher can show students what kind of world they were in.

HIDE-WORLD: after showing the world, the teacher can hide the world again from the students, so the whole checkerboard turns grey and students’ avatars become invisible.

Wealth distribution plot: a bar chart, in which each bar represents a student's sugar, sorted from the lowest to the highest.

Lorenz curve plot: a chart that shows the cumulative percent of wealth (y axis) owned by the cumulative percentage of the population (x axis). The perfectly equal distribution is the gray diagonal line (e.g., the bottom 30% of the population owns 30% of the total wealth). The farther the red curve deviates from the diagonal line, the more unequal the wealth distribution (e.g., the bottom 30% of the population owns 1% of the total wealth). The Lorenz curve is a cumulative percentage version of the Wealth distribution plot.

Gini index vs. time: Gini index is a numerical value between 0 and 1, with 0 being perfectly equal and 1 being extremely unequal, that measure the wealth inequality. The plot shows Gini index (y axis) over time (x axis)

The plots automatically update based on real time aggregation of the amount of sugar that students own.

At the individual level, pay attention to your initial conditions: What is your endowment? (how much sugar do you start with?); What is your vision (how far you can see, as measured in numbers of patches); What is your metabolism? (See THINGS TO TRY for tips of figuring out your metabolism).

Pay attention to the color of the patch that you are harvesting. When you harvest it, it becomes white. But it returns to yellow soon after being harvested, indicating the sugar on that patch grew back.

How does your sugar change? Pay attention to the sugar monitor on your interface.

What happens when you go broke?

At the aggregate level (on the teacher's interface), pay attention to the three plots, especially the relationship between the Wealth distribution plot and the Lorenz curve.

The Lorenz curve can be derived from the wealth distribution plot by converting the actual amount of sugar that each participant owns (what the height of each bar in the wealth distribution plot represents) into cumulative percentages in the Lorenz curve, which can be interpreted as “the bottom certain percent of the population own certain percent of the world’s wealth”. Therefore, the shape of the area under the red curve in the Lorenz curve plot looks like the shape of the bars in the wealth distribution plot, except that the red curve is stretched unevenly along the y axis.

Pay attention to how one plot’s shape changes in relation to the other and how well the sugar-mean represents everybody’s wealth.

Compare the three plots with those in the first model. How and why do they differ?

Try taking one step by clicking any of the directional buttons. How much sugar does it take to move one step? That amount is your METABOLISM. Try clicking the harvest button. Does your total sugar increase, decrease, or stay the same? Do you know why? (Tip: each harvest burns the same amount of sugar as moving one step).

Do you want to move or not? Why? If you do want to move, do you know where to move? (Tip: what is your vision?)

How rich are you in your class? Who is the richest? How did you or they become the richest? Share your experience with the whole class.

Discuss how the simulation compares to the real world. Do you see any analogies? What do vision, endowment, and metabolism mean in the real world? Can you find a real-world story that maps onto your experience in the simulation?

The agents' conditions in this model are assigned completely at random. In the real world however, these conditions usually correlate with each other. For example, if a person is born into a rich neighborhood, his or her endowment is usually also high. Try to extend the model by adding some correlations, so participants can experience scenarios that more closely resemble the real world.

This model initializes each patch's sugar and color by using the file-read primitive based on the data provided in an external file.

This model uses `hubnet-view-override`

and `hubnet-send-follow`

to create the view seen on the clients' interface. `hubnet-send-override`

allows the clients see a view that is different that the host. In this model, clients only see a small part of the virtual world. `hubnet-send-follow`

keeps the user at the center of the client's view and puts a halo around it. The user is always centered even when it's moving.

This model also makes use of *anonymous procedures*, which allow agents to change states (E.g. from "chilling" to "broke"), in which the agents follow different rules at each tick (E.g. when an agent is in the "chilling" state, at each tick, the user's button clicks are executed. However, if the agent is in the "broke" state, the user's button clicks are ignored). Users switch between states in two ways: when in the "chilling" state, if the agent runs out of sugar, it goes into the "broke" state. Meanwhile, a timer starts to count down. When to timer goes down to zero, the agent goes out of the "broke" state and enters the "chilling" state again.

Other models in the Mind the Gap HubNet suite include:

- Mind the Gap 1 Equal Opportunities HubNet Model
- Mind the Gap 3 Feedback Loop HubNet Model

The model is also related to the NetLogo SugarScape suite, including:

- Sugarscape 1 Immediate Growback
- Sugarscape 2 Constant Growback
- Sugarscape 3 Wealth Distribution

Epstein, J. and Axtell, R. (1996). Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.

Li, J. and Wilensky, U. (2009). NetLogo Sugarscape 3 Wealth Distribution model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Sugarscape3WealthDistribution. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

If you mention this model or the NetLogo software in a publication, we ask that you include the citations below.

For the model itself:

- Guo, Y. and Wilensky, U. (2018). NetLogo MTG 2 Random Assignment HubNet model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/MTG2RandomAssignmentHubNet. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Please cite the NetLogo software as:

- Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

To cite the Mind the Gap curriculum as a whole, please use:

- Guo, Y. & Wilensky, U. (2018). Mind the Gap curriculum. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/MindtheGap/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Copyright 2018 Uri Wilensky.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Commercial licenses are also available. To inquire about commercial licenses, please contact Uri Wilensky at uri@northwestern.edu.

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