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## NetLogo Models Library: |

If you download the NetLogo application, this model is included. (You can also run this model in your browser, but we don't recommend it; details here.) |

This project is a more sophisticated two-lane version of the "Traffic Basic" model. Much like the simpler model, this model demonstrates how traffic jams can form. In the two-lane version, drivers have a new option; they can react by changing lanes, although this often does little to solve their problem.

As in the traffic model, traffic may slow down and jam without any centralized cause.

Click on the SETUP button to set up the cars. Click on DRIVE to start the cars moving. The STEP button drives the car for just one tick of the clock.

The NUMBER slider controls the number of cars on the road. The LOOK-AHEAD slider controls the distance that drivers look ahead (in deciding whether to slow down or change lanes). The SPEED-UP slider controls the rate at which cars accelerate when there are no cars ahead. The SLOW-DOWN slider controls the rate at which cars decelerate when there is a car close ahead.

You may wish to slow down the model with the speed slider to watch the behavior of certain cars more closely.

The SELECT-CAR button allows you to pick a car to watch. It turns the car red, so that it is easier to keep track of it. SELECT-CAR is best used while DRIVE is turned off. If the user does not select a car manually, a car is chosen at random to be the "selected car".

The AVERAGE-SPEED monitor displays the average speed of all the cars.

The CAR SPEEDS plot displays four quantities over time: - the maximum speed of any car - CYAN - the minimum speed of any car - BLUE - the average speed of all cars - GREEN - the speed of the selected car - RED

Traffic jams can start from small "seeds." Cars start with random positions and random speeds. If some cars are clustered together, they will move slowly, causing cars behind them to slow down, and a traffic jam forms.

Even though all of the cars are moving forward, the traffic jams tend to move backwards. This behavior is common in wave phenomena: the behavior of the group is often very different from the behavior of the individuals that make up the group.

Just as each car has a current speed and a maximum speed, each driver has a current patience and a maximum patience. When a driver decides to change lanes, he may not always find an opening in the lane. When his patience expires, he tries to get back in the lane he was first in. If this fails, back he goes... As he gets more 'frustrated', his patience gradually decreases over time. When the number of cars in the model is high, watch to find cars that weave in and out of lanes in this manner. This phenomenon is called "snaking" and is common in congested highways.

Watch the AVERAGE-SPEED monitor, which computes the average speed of the cars. What happens to the speed over time? What is the relation between the speed of the cars and the presence (or absence) of traffic jams?

Look at the two plots. Can you detect discernible patterns in the plots?

What could you change to minimize the chances of traffic jams forming, besides just the number of cars? What is the relationship between number of cars, number of lanes, and (in this case) the length of each lane?

Explore changes to the sliders SLOW-DOWN, SPEED-UP, and LOOK-AHEAD. How do these affect the flow of traffic? Can you set them so as to create maximal snaking?

Try to create a 'traffic-3 lanes', 'traffic-4 lanes', 'traffic-crossroads' (where two sets of cars might meet at a traffic light), or 'traffic-bottleneck' model (where two lanes might merge to form one lane).

Note that the cars never crash into each other- a car will never enter a patch or pass through a patch containing another car. Remove this feature, and have the turtles that collide die upon collision. What will happen to such a model over time?

Note the use of `mouse-down?`

and `mouse-xcor`

/`mouse-ycor`

to enable selecting a car for special attention.

Each turtle has a shape, unlike in some other models. NetLogo uses `set shape`

to alter the shapes of turtles. You can, using the shapes editor in the Tools menu, create your own turtle shapes or modify existing ones. Then you can modify the code to use your own shapes.

Traffic Basic

If you mention this model or the NetLogo software in a publication, we ask that you include the citations below.

For the model itself:

- Wilensky, U. (1998). NetLogo Traffic 2 Lanes model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Traffic2Lanes. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Please cite the NetLogo software as:

- Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Copyright 1998 Uri Wilensky.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Commercial licenses are also available. To inquire about commercial licenses, please contact Uri Wilensky at uri@northwestern.edu.

This model was created as part of the project: CONNECTED MATHEMATICS: MAKING SENSE OF COMPLEX PHENOMENA THROUGH BUILDING OBJECT-BASED PARALLEL MODELS (OBPML). The project gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (Applications of Advanced Technologies Program) -- grant numbers RED #9552950 and REC #9632612.

This model was converted to NetLogo as part of the projects: PARTICIPATORY SIMULATIONS: NETWORK-BASED DESIGN FOR SYSTEMS LEARNING IN CLASSROOMS and/or INTEGRATED SIMULATION AND MODELING ENVIRONMENT. The project gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (REPP & ROLE programs) -- grant numbers REC #9814682 and REC-0126227. Converted from StarLogoT to NetLogo, 2001.

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